Tag Archives: Education

International Schools in South Korea: The Good, the Bad, and the Sketchy

International schools come in many shapes and sizes in Korea. Teaching at an international school can be the experience of a lifetime or a complete nightmare, depending on the school and its management. Here are some things to be aware of when considering international schools in Korea, whether you’re a teacher looking for work or a parent looking for a good place to educate your kids.

Accreditation

Perhaps one of the most significant factors when considering an international school is accreditation. There are several ways that a school could be recognized in South Korea. The best, most trustworthy schools will obviously be accredited by a reputable board, whether Korean or foreign.

Government-approved

The biggest international schools with the strictest requirements for teachers and facilities will be international schools recognized as such by the Korean government. Officially recognized international schools have to meet government-approved standards, and teachers must be appropriately educated, licensed, and experienced in their fields of study. Real registered international schools are typically sizeable, reputable, and well-funded with their own property and facilities.

Other Accreditation Councils

Many private international schools may also have accreditations or memberships associated with various international school associations and councils that all have their own standards and requirements. Schools with these accreditations and memberships may or may not be registered as schools with the Korean government. There are too many different associations to list exhaustively here, but a few memberships and accreditation associations you might see include East Asia Regional Council of Schools (EARCOS), Korea Council of Overseas Schools (KORCOS), and Association of Christian Schools International (ACSI). Also be aware that some organizations offer different levels of membership, such as full membership and associate membership. Lower levels of membership may or may not guarantee serious standards from member schools.

Whatever accreditations or councils you see a school advertising on their website, you should do your own investigation into what those associations actually mean and what their standards are. Reputable organizations have high standards and ensure that their members continue to uphold those standards to maintain membership, while other no-name associations are simply there to make things look official without really checking up on their members or guaranteeing any kind of standard.

Unaccredited

Lack of accreditation should be an immediate red flag to teachers and parents alike. A school without some kind of accreditation may be a small, perfectly well-meaning private school, but without some kind of official recognition, it may be difficult to tell. If a school you are interested in is not accredited, here are a few things you can ask to dig deeper:

  • When was the school founded? A young school may not have been open long enough to get accredited yet. Some organizations require that a school be in operation for a certain number of years to be eligible for membership or accreditation. The accreditation process may also take several years to complete. If a school has been operating for several years and has not bothered to begin some kind of accreditation process, they have probably chosen not to—likely because they don’t want to do what it takes to become accredited or they already know they won’t be approved.
  • Have they started the accreditation process? If so, how far along are they? Some unaccredited schools may say that they are still in the process of becoming accredited. This may be true, but some have been saying this for years just to sound good but actually have no intention of becoming accredited. If it’s been a long time since a school supposedly started the process and they’re still not very far along, they’re probably not really going to get accredited anytime soon.
  • Were they previously accredited? Some schools have previously been accredited but lost their accreditation or let it expire. They might even leave their framed certificate on the wall for everyone to see, knowing that nobody is actually going to look at the date. There is not really a good reason for a previously accredited school to no longer be accredited. They’ve either let their standards slip, or they’re too cheap and lazy to keep up with the renewal process. Even if they have a legitimate reason for no longer being accredited by a certain organization, they should at least be in the process of joining another.
  • Why are they unaccredited? It is possible that a small private school may be great at what they do but truly lack the means or facilities to become accredited, but most schools should have some kind of motivation to seek accreditation. Even a small private school would need a pretty convincing answer to this question to still seem legitimate in any way.

If the management of a school can’t answer the questions on this list honestly and convincingly, the school is probably not worth any more of your time or consideration.

Registration

Closely related to accreditation, a school’s registration within Korea determines a lot about the standards and requirements a school must meet. International schools registered as schools with the Korean government must follow strict requirements and guidelines like any other Korean school would have to. However, not all supposed international schools in Korea are actually registered as schools. In fact, a lot of them aren’t.

Many small international schools are only registered as hagwons or miscellaneous businesses. Although hagwons are academic in nature, they are still just businesses in the eyes of the Korean government. Hagwons are not schools, and their teachers are only required to have an E-2 visa for teaching conversational English.

Because of the relative ease of starting and running a hagwon, it is not uncommon for low-budget international schools to have conversational English classes like any other hagwon in the afternoons while having international school classes during regular school hours. Since they are only registered as hagwons, such schools can easily hire teachers that only have to get E-2 visas rather than the E-7 or F-series visas teachers would usually have at registered international schools.

Hagwon status and its academic nature gives sub-par international schools the apparent legitimacy of some kind of registration and membership within the Korean hagwon association, but it still doesn’t make them real schools, even if the words international school are part of their names. To unsuspecting foreigners, hagwon registration might be enough to make a small operation seem like a legitimate school, but hagwons are actually just businesses and do not have to meet the same criteria as actual schools.

Curriculum

The more highly-accredited a school is, the stricter the curriculum requirements are likely to be. The important thing is that a school has a proper, reputable curriculum of some kind and that they stick to it properly. Different accreditation organizations have their own curriculum standards, so things will vary from school to school.

A good school will use reputable, up-to-date curricula and textbooks. Students and teachers alike will be properly equipped with the textbooks they need for each subject. The school will be able to confidently show and explain their curriculum and textbooks to prospective employees and students.

A sketchy school might not even have proper textbooks or materials. In some cases the teachers might not even have the books or materials they need and be left to come up with their own plans and materials. Particularly bad or poorly equipped schools (probably of the unaccredited hagwon flavor) may end up photocopying books and printing a hodgepodge of free worksheets off the internet rather than providing everyone with appropriate textbooks and materials. Always ask to see the curriculum and textbooks a school uses. If they can’t or won’t show you a thorough and complete curriculum with appropriate textbooks and materials for every subject, they’re probably hiding something.

Faculty and Staff

As the word international implies, an international school would typically have a lot of international teachers. This doesn’t necessarily have to be the case, but the point of having an international school is to teach international students in a language that they can all understand, typically English. It’s normal to have some local Korean teachers too, but many of the faculty and staff at a legitimate international school are likely to be foreigners.

More importantly, the staff at a real international school will have to meet certain requirements to be hired. To work at an official international school, faculty will typically need to be licensed teachers with master’s degrees in their fields of study to get E-7 visas. Teachers who have been in country for a while may also have F-series visas instead.

If the teachers at an international school are not licensed or are hired on E-2 visas, then the school is not registered with the government as a true international school. It is probably only registered as a hagwon at best.

Facilities

Reputable international schools will typically have their own property and buildings. They should have all or most of the equipment and facilities you’d expect at a normal school anywhere else. Small-time private schools and hagwons will often just be renting a building, or even just a floor or two of one. Really low-budget operations will have bare minimum classroom supplies and equipment. The smaller and sketchier the facilities, the more alert you should be for other red flags. Always ask for a tour, even if it has to be by video call.

Avoiding Bad Schools and Hagwons

If you’re a teacher looking for work, you might consider getting hired through a recruiter to make sure you end up at a legitimate school or hagwon. And whether you’re a teacher, parent, or student, you should check out some of these review sites and blacklists for schools and hagwons to avoid:

These lists and reviews are far from exhaustive, but it’s good to at least make sure a school you’re considering isn’t on a blacklist. If you’re up for a little more digging around online, you might also consider joining a Facebook group for foreigners living in the same city. Other foreign teachers in the same city have likely at least heard about the other hagwons and schools in their area and may be able to give you specific information that you won’t find anywhere else online.

Conclusion

Depending on what you are looking for, it may not matter to you if a school is public or private, government-funded or small-time and unaccredited. After all, it is possible to get a good education from good people without fancy facilities and accreditations. That being said though, the more highly-accredited and government-regulated a school is, the easier it will be to know exactly what you’re getting into. Especially when considering small private schools, be sure to do your own due diligence and ask lots of questions to make sure they are legitimate.

Real Ways You Can Make a Difference in Your Community

The following is a guest post by Lance Cody-Valdez of free-lance-now.com. Visit his website for freelancing tips and resources and more great articles like this one!


While you may have a deep, personal passion for caring for others, it can be hard to figure out the best way to make a difference in the surrounding community. Grammarai Warrior presents the following guide to help anyone who wants to make a positive impact in their area.

Community-Focused Careers

What better way to combine your passion with your work? You can make a living by making a difference. There are many options; all you need is a little drive, focus and creativity. The following suggestions can open you up to a whole new world of possibilities.

  • Working as a teacher can help you build up the next generation. If you’re looking for a career change, consider a fast-track program.
  • Looking to take on a major role in your community? Consider running for office.
  • You can even start your own business with a mind to hire locally or to give a portion of your proceeds to a community cause.

Volunteering

There’s no better way to put feet to your public spirit and social conscience than volunteering your time and resources to a worthy endeavor. Volunteering gives you a sense of purpose, and it’s also a way to get to know your fellow citizens. Here are some ways to make your impact in your spare time.

  • Volunteering helps your community and improves your mental health.
  • Looking for something less structured? Consider bringing trash-pickup items on your next walk and tidying your neighborhood.
  • If STEAM projects are more your leaning and you aren’t sure where to start, check in with local observatories, code camps, and even the National Weather Service; if you’re a weather junkie, you can teach kids about meteorology by doing a little storm spotting.

Using Your Voice

Many people aren’t aware of the issues facing the world today. Maybe you’re the one to inform your community about current events, whether they’re hot-button topics or not. Here’s how to use your voice effectively.

Ultimately, you should focus on finding ways to make the most of your strengths. You have unique skills, interests, and talents that can make a big difference for those around you. We hope this article inspires you to get started on your journey toward helping your community thrive.

Photo credit: Pexels


If you enjoyed this guest article by Lance, visit him at free-lance-now.com for more great content and resources for freelancers and digital nomads!

The First Steps of Starting a Green Business

The following is a guest post by Virginia Cooper of learnaliving.co. Check out her website or get in touch for more business and education ideas!


If you’re an entrepreneur and love the planet, then ecopreneurship could be the perfect fit! As with any type of business, however, starting a green business is not easy. You must be willing to put in the hard work and preparation while staying true to your environmental convictions. But the reward you will receive as you see tangible results will make it all worthwhile. Consider these tips and resources as you make a plan for your first green business!

Learn the Basics of Ecopreneurship

Let’s start with the basics. Here are some essential responsibilities to expect as an ecopreneur:

  • Constantly consider how you can benefit the environment in every aspect of your operations.
  • Also, always look for new opportunities to help your community members and the community at large.
  • As much as possible, develop a supply chain of eco-conscious organizations and individuals.
  • Remain cognizant of how you can boost your profits so that you can keep propelling your mission forward!

Think Like a Business

Along with maintaining a heightened sense of the environment and social factors in your community, you will need to handle all the tasks that come with operating a small business:

  • Create a thorough business plan that details your mission statement, core values, financial projections, funding requirements, marketing strategies, and more.
  • Come up with a creative business name that fits your goals and offerings as a business.
  • Establish a legal structure for your organization. You’ll need a Tax ID Number from the IRS for banking. Many new businesses choose to register as an LLC as this entity protects personal assets.
  • Develop branding (e.g., logo, colors, typography) that sets your business apart from others.

Explore Your Options

Finally, if you’re not settled on the type of business you want to start, consider these trending green business ideas:

  • Start a green cleaning service that works on residential and commercial properties.
  • Provide landscaping services to homeowners and businesses using native plants and trees.
  • Make organic beauty products to sell online and/or locally.
  • Combat fast fashion by opening a sustainable clothing brand or store.

There are countless ways to contribute to a healthier environment and community by becoming an ecopreneur. Remember to learn the essential aspects of running a green business, and don’t cut any corners when laying the groundwork. In no time, you’ll be on your way to making the world a more sustainable place for future generations!

This article is brought to you by Grammarai Warrior. For more information, please visit our website or contact us today!


If you enjoyed this guest post, don’t forget to check out Virginia’s website for more great content like this!

Affordable and Educational Gifts for Children that Don’t Include Screens

The following is a guest post by Joyce Wilson of TeacherSpark.org. Visit her blog for more great articles and teaching ideas!


Many children spend a lot of time playing video games and watching television these days, and it can be a real challenge to get them interested in anything else. We don’t want them to be bored, but it is natural to want to give gifts that move them away from screens, since as ParentMap notes, too much use can be bad for them. Luckily, many educational gifts that are reasonably priced are easy to find. Here are some simple, budget-friendly suggestions courtesy of Grammarai Warrior.

Encourage Artistic Expression

Encouraging children to express themselves artistically has many emotional benefits and it doesn’t cost a lot of money to foster their natural talents. Art supplies like acrylic paint, brushes and a canvas or two make an excellent gift combination for youngsters. Other good options include modeling clay, charcoal pencils, watercolors, and calligraphy sets. Even simple coloring books and crayons can offer hours of creative fun.

Music is another form of artistic expression that can draw a child away from the lure of screens. Although a new musical instrument can be a big investment, a used one can be purchased from online sites like eBay or Etsy. As an example, a keyboard is relatively easy to learn and is a good way for a child to start making music. Be sure to throw in a book of easy-to-master songs and a pair of noise-canceling headphones to round out the gift.

Hands-On Education

Children love watching things grow and learning how substances react. A biology lab kit can be assembled by buying seeds, growing medium, and a few pots. Try to choose plants that grow relatively quickly like marigolds or beans so the whole operation won’t be abandoned. If your child is hooked on science, chemistry sets provide hours of interesting activity for children while teaching them about experimentation. Select one that is age-appropriate and meets your price point.

Another inexpensive hands-on learning toy is a set of building blocks like Legos and other creative construction toys. Parenting Science points out there is ample evidence that construction play encourages problem-solving as well as language, spatial, and motor skills. You can start with a simple set that can be added on to as the child’s ability to build expands. And you might be surprised to learn that if you visit Lego’s website, you can often find sales on their products.

For the Bookworms

Books never go out of style. Consider popular nonfiction titles or even a series of books. Many bookstores, whether online or not, have members’ clubs that offer discounts and special rates.

Also, consider shopping second-hand bookstores for first-edition classic titles or gently used selections. If you have an e-reader, download some freebies. With endless options on every topic imaginable, books are the perfect way to expand your child’s horizons and help them learn.

Family and Social Interactions

Meaningful interactions with family and friends are the best way to get children interested in leaving the world of their screens behind. Consider games and puzzles to brighten your child’s day, enjoy more family time, and, of course, keep them off the electronics.

Puzzles are both fun and challenging mental exercise and can be a super low-cost gift. A jigsaw puzzle of the world, for instance, is an excellent gift for helping kids to learn geography. Several puzzle books like crossword and word search are also a good choice. Finally, board games can teach a variety of skills like counting, spelling and even real estate.

Another activity you can do with your kids is to teach them about the practical skills you demonstrate at home everyday. You can talk to them about doing things with you around the house. You can ask them to help you cook lunch, tend to the garden, or wash the car. If they’re interested you can check different websites, and look at some project that you can do together.

Deciding on a screen-less gift for your child doesn’t have to be a difficult or impossible decision. Children love learning, creating and moving, so all of these options should provide a great first step. Don’t be afraid to get creative, and don’t forget to take advantage of online opportunities to help you save money.

Grammarai Warrior offers inspirational tips and free grammar resources. Check out our store or contact us today!


If you enjoyed this article by Joyce Wilson, get in touch with her and check out all of her content at TeacherSpark.org for more helpful information and inspirational teaching ideas!

a teacher speaking to his class

Teaching: A Calling Not Just A Career

The following is a guest post by Susan Good of RetiredEducator.org. Visit her blog for more great articles like this one!


Teachers are more than educators. They are community leaders and are largely responsible for shaping what our world will look like in the future. If you are thinking about stepping into the classroom, keep reading as the Grammarai Warrior blog covers the basics on how to become a teacher.

Traits of a teacher

Not just anyone can be a teacher. You must be highly organized with the ability to give clear and concise directions to a group of people with varying skills and knowledge levels. If you choose to work at the elementary level, you also need to be exponentially patient and understand that kids must burn energy and question authority. A great teacher will have an astounding sense of humor and be a perpetual optimist.

Educational requirements

If you believe you have what it takes, the next step is to evaluate your dedication to your education. The vast majority of teaching positions in the United States require, at minimum, a bachelor’s degree. You should know, however, that earning your master’s degree (there are plenty of programs available online) opens up other opportunities. For example, you could potentially become a lead educator or administrator earlier in your career than with a bachelor’s alone. Once you are done with your education, you will need to take an educator certification test and pass a background check.

Ongoing training

Even though you will spend the vast majority of your time in front of a class, you will also find yourself on the other side of learning more often than you may expect. After you finish your student teaching, you will be required to complete ongoing professional development. Many enthusiastic teachers are given opportunities to further advance their teaching skills by visiting other schools — many of which, like the Ron Clark Academy, have a reputation for innovative teaching styles that cater to at-risk youth.

The rewards

There are obvious rewards to being a teacher. One is that you get to shape the leaders of the future. But as educational technologies company Shmoop explains, you will also learn while you earn. If impacting the future and enhancing your own knowledge base isn’t enough, think of all of the funny moments that you’ll have in the classroom — both because of the students and your sense of humor, which will grow out of necessity. Further, you get to work with other men and women who have similar goals as your own, and you’ll form a network of friends that will quickly grow outside of work.

The money

Very few teachers start their careers because of the money. Depending on where you live, you can expect a starting salary of $32,000 or less. Some higher-paying teachers in states like New York and Massachusetts easily top out at $75,000 or more. According to Niche, the average teacher in the US makes around $58,950 per year.

Being a teacher is a calling just as much as it is a career. For all of its positives, teachers are sadly overlooked and underappreciated. There may be days when you want to throw in the proverbial towel. But remember: The work you do now will have a long-lasting impact. The students you teach today hold tight to the lessons you’ve taught long after you retire, and they will take these with them into their adult lives. As a teacher, you are important, you matter, and you make a difference — and you can’t put a price on that.


If you enjoyed this article by Susan Good, check out more of her content at retirededucator.org! Whether you’re a professional educator, a parent, or a lifelong learner, you’re sure to benefit from her wealth of knowledge and practical teaching advice gained from thirty-eight years of teaching experience.

a stack of old books

The Real Shortcut to Learning

At some point most of us find ourselves needing or wanting to learn another language. Thankfully, we live in a world with a surplus of available information. There are countless free and paid learning resources available. We have apps, books, online courses, and everything in between that promise to teach us just about any language we could possibly want to learn. And all of these learning methods promise to teach us more effectively than all the others. Language courses claim to have the latest and greatest instructional methods that guarantee the fastest and easiest way to become fluent.

Sadly, as we can often instinctively tell, most claims of fast and easy fluency are exaggerations at best and sometimes flat-out lies. Many of us are all too familiar with the falsehood of such claims. We’ve signed up for a subscription for some app that promised us the easiest way to fluency or bought a phrasebook that promised to teach all the essential vocabulary we’d need to speak like a native and found out the hard way that such short cuts don’t work. We’ve seen the advertisements and infomercials about language courses that immerse us in a new language so that we can have fun learning naturally without having to study grammar or memorize vocabulary and ended up bored or frustrated.

If you’ve looked into learning a new language, or really anything else, you’ve probably noticed the trend learning systems are following. They’re promising that learning will be easy and fun. We’ve been indoctrinated with the fallacious idea that education is supposed to be entertaining since we were toddlers watching Sesame Street and Dora the Explorer, and developers are using the false doctrine of “edutainment” to make a profit. This doctrine is so pervasive that many of even the most conservative and traditional educators promote the idea that learning should be as fun as they can make it.

Replacing real education with cleverly disguised entertainment breeds ignorance and frustration. Having all grown up under the delusion that we need to be constantly entertained, we’ve shortened our attention spans and weakened our ability to sit still and pay attention to something that is not meant to be entertaining. We are shocked at the idea that people living before the subtle takeover of entertainment culture could willingly sit and listen to speeches, lectures, and sermons for hours at a time and read books for pleasure. Now it’s hard enough to find an adult, let alone a child, who could sit alone in a room with his own thoughts for an hour or two without desperately craving some kind of entertainment or media to consume.

Having all grown up under the delusion that we need to be constantly entertained, we’ve shortened our attention spans and weakened our ability to sit still and pay attention to something that is not meant to be entertaining.

In addition to making everything entertaining, language educators are also claiming that they can make learning easy, especially by eliminating the study of grammar. Grammar is often presented as some terrible monster of a subject that no one in their right mind would approach. Many people growing up in the public school system don’t even learn much grammar anymore, if they learn any at all. When people are ignorant and fearful of the grammar of their own language, mastering the grammar of a foreign language seems like an insurmountable obstacle. Language instructors then design apps and curriculums that attempt to teach languages with as few technical grammar points as possible.

When people are ignorant and fearful of the grammar of their own language, mastering the grammar of a foreign language seems like an insurmountable obstacle.

Language learning techniques that claim to be easy and entertaining sound great. Everyone wants to achieve maximum results with minimal effort, so most popular language learning tools strive to provide easy and entertaining courses without dry or difficult material like grammar. Entertainment sells. When consumers get bored with an app, they end their subscription and uninstall it. When learning a language gets dry and difficult, we often become frustrated and discouraged. We lose our steam and want to quit and find something better. And without the motivation of a serious financial investment in a real language class and a report card to keep us committed to our studies, it’s all too easy to cut our loss of a few dollars and move on to something else. In the end, we don’t end up learning much of anything.

We could blame the developers of “easy” and “fun” language learning systems for making exaggerated and inaccurate claims about their grossly inadequate curriculums, but the truth is that they only produce the products that consumers want. They’re only making what sells. The reason educators are producing lazy curriculums is that we the consumers are lazy. Businesses sell what consumers want, and what consumers want is to be entertained. We have lost the discipline and mental fortitude required to make real progress.

Businesses sell what consumers want, and what consumers want is to be entertained.

Most of us would readily admit that great thinkers and leaders of the past were much more intelligent than we are today. We wouldn’t dare compare ourselves to historical figures like Plato, Marcus Aurelius, Sun Tzu, or Alexander Hamilton. But did any of these men become highly intelligent and successful by learning through entertainment? Absolutely not. Benjamin Franklin did not learn French by subscribing to an app. Napoleon did not become a great strategist with brain teasers and puzzles. King Solomon did not become wise by watching Sesame Street and Mr. Rogers. Great thinkers of the past learned by putting in significant effort. They studied. They wrote. They practiced. They memorized. They read all the books they could get their hands on. They weren’t expecting to be entertained. They realized the importance and necessity of applying themselves and working hard even when something was not easy or entertaining.

At some point, studying will get difficult and boring. We’ll have to struggle with difficult words and grammatical concepts from time to time. That’s how we learn. We can’t master a new subject if we’re just looking for novelty all the time. As entertaining as the “fun” teachers are, they might not always be the best for us if they don’t also make us work. The teachers I would have claimed as favorites in school were the ones who were funny and entertaining. I remember them well, and I even remember some of their funny stories, but I don’t remember much of what they taught in their classes. However, I do remember lots of boring things like grammar, multiplication tables, and spelling rules that my strict teachers forced me to memorize day in and day out. I didn’t have fun in their classes, and I hated all the homework. But all the hard work and memorization forced me to learn things that are nearly impossible to forget now.

The real shortcut to learning is to stop looking for shortcuts. Stop demanding constant novelty and entertainment. We master subjects by wrestling with new ideas and concepts, making mistakes, and building on the foundations of what we’ve learned before. To make real progress, we have to stop demanding that everything be fun and easy and develop the discipline and mental fortitude necessary to truly succeed.

The real shortcut to learning is to stop looking for shortcuts. Stop demanding constant novelty and entertainment.

The modern mind is like a spoiled child demanding constant entertainment. We need to stop spoiling our brains, stop trying to work around their childish cravings for novelty, and start disciplining them. There is truth to the saying that the mind is a muscle. Like our other muscles, the mind will grow through strenuous activity. Just as we gain strength and muscle mass by challenging our physical limits, so too will we gain mental strength by challenging our intellectual limits. We need to stop looking for shortcuts and falling for sales gimmicks telling us what we want to hear and start disciplining ourselves to work hard toward meaningful progress.

a smartphone next to an open notebook

How Texting Affects Literacy and Grammar

With all the technological advancements in the last few decades, texting has become a commonplace form of communication. The brief nature of texting has popularized a relatively new abbreviated communication register referred to as “textese.” Due to the informal nature of textese and its blatant disregard for basic grammar and spelling rules, many people may assume that the use of textese damages skills like spelling, vocabulary, grammar, and literacy. However, research on the effects of texting shows some surprisingly positive results. Texting is not always detrimental to literacy and grammar and is rather beneficial in many ways.

Research indicates that texting does not necessarily have the negative effects on literacy that many people assume. Studies show mixed results but largely indicate that texting has positive effects with few or no negative effects on literacy and grammar among children and adults. M.A. Drouin points out that “studies in both the United States and Britain have shown that there are no significant, negative relationships between the use of textese and standard measures of literacy,” and that those studies actually indicate positive effects among children and little effect on young adults.[1] However, research, especially concerning adults, is often inconclusive. With so many variables in regard to people and their environments and circumstances, it is difficult to determine consistent trends and effects of texting. It is likely that an adult’s comprehension of literacy and grammar systems is determined more by his own competency than by his use of language.

Competent adults should at least be able to differentiate between the registers of textese and standard English and know the appropriate times and places to use each register. Drouin says, “It does not appear that textese just seeps out into writing everywhere and in equal amounts; instead, the average person uses textese thoughtfully, and more often within the contexts deemed ‘appropriate.’”[2] People are not usually oblivious when using textese. They seem to make the deliberate choice to use it or not. Wood, Kemp, and Waldron also pick up on this idea of the average person’s awareness in their study: “Our results suggest that the impact of ‘lazy’ language use when texting may have been overstated. Our findings reinforce the need to differentiate between the deliberate violation of grammatical or orthographic convention and a genuine lack of understanding.”[3] When a person uses textese, he is likely doing so consciously. The use of textese does not necessarily mean that people are becoming completely ignorant of the proper rules of grammar and syntax in standard English. People are aware of two distinct forms of communication, even if they do not always choose the best one.

Even in the case of a truly oblivious or grammatically incompetent individual, textese could still prove useful. De Jonge and Kemp assert that “if less competent language users are drawn to the creativity and flexibility of textese in a way that improves their language skills through exposure to written language (as has been suggested with younger children), then mobile phones could prove useful in educational settings.”[4] As with children, textese could prove beneficial even to young adults, if it serves to expose them to written language and encourages them to experiment and manipulate it in different contexts. Of course, texting is not preferable or comparable to real language education, but something is better than nothing. Texting has the potential to be beneficial to people at various levels of linguistic competency.

In addition to competency, Wood, Kemp, and Waldron point out that things like the state of the person texting and even the texting device he is using also make a difference. Factors such as time constraints, emotional states, and the intended recipient of a message can all affect how a person texts, as “the use of kisses, emoticons, and multiple punctuation marks might have more to do with one’s tendency to feel or to display emotion and affection, than with one’s grammatical or orthographic prowess.”[5] Different situations call for different levels of correctness and formality; the use or neglect of standard grammar and punctuation in a situation that does not require their strict application does not necessarily indicate any detrimental effects of texting on an individual. Wood and associates also indicate that “the inclusion or omission of conventional punctuation and capitalization might be determined more by the sophistication of self-correcting phone technology than by the skill of the writer.”[6] Even the notorious “auto-correct” functions account for some of the apparent lack of literacy and grammatical skill associated with texting.

Texting is not necessarily as detrimental as people often assume, and it can actually be quite beneficial, particularly to children. Research shows that children who text frequently tend to be better readers. Deacon and Whitzman point out that the more proficient a child is at texting, the more proficient he is at spelling and reading standard English and believe “it seems unlikely that texting, on its own, impairs children’s development of the vital reading and writing skills that they need in the classroom.”[7] Studies indicate that texting does not have negative effects on children’s literacy and rather show the opposite. Van Dijk and associates assert that in most studies “children’s use of textese and their spelling and literacy abilities were found to be positively related.”[8] Drouin and Driver agree that textisms are positively related to children’s literacy.[9] Wood, Kemp, and Waldron also observe that school children “who used more ungrammatical word forms and more unconventional orthographic forms showed better . . . spelling and growth in orthographic processing.”[10] Contrary to popular assumption, research indicates that the more children use textese, the more their literacy improves.

There are several possible reasons for the positive effects of textese on children. One common idea is that texting is fun because it allows children the freedom to play and experiment with language without regard for spelling and punctuation rules. If children enjoy the fun of texting and using language in this way, they are more likely to enjoy and appreciate other literacy-based endeavors as well, further increasing their interest in the use of language. Van Dijk and associates suggest that texting exposes children to more text and also increases their “phonological and phonetic awareness” to improve their reading skills, suggesting that simple exposure to text itself, whether typing it or reading it, provides practice of sorts and increases children’s awareness and mastery of reading and using text.[11] Wood, Kemp, and Waldron echo this idea as they discuss the phonetic nature of many textisms: “Their use contributes to phonological awareness and phonological processing, which in turn contribute to spelling development.”[12] Simply gaining more exposure to language and putting it to use in different ways contributes to children’s linguistic development.

Van Dijk and associates also suggest that texting generally increases children’s awareness of different registers and the appropriate times and places to use each register.[13] Texting may help children to understand that there are different registers of speech and writing and to differentiate between those registers as they learn where and when each register is appropriate. Children who frequently use textese may develop advantages similar to those of bilingual children. It is possible that switching between the registers of textese and standard English may exercise similar mental functions to switching between languages. Van Dijk and associates point out that being bilingual strengthens one’s abilities to suppress certain information while making use of information relevant to a given situation, even a non-linguistic situation.[14] A similar process for choosing between registers of speech and writing could offer the same benefits.

Texting has been found to have positive effects not only on children’s literacy but also on their grammar. Much like the effects of texting on basic literacy functions, its effects on grammar are largely positive. Van Dijk and associates found that “the more words children omitted in their text messages, the better their grammar performance,” suggesting that the omission of words in textese may train children’s grammar systems and improve grammatical performance in their speech.[15] Similar to the way exposure to texting and manipulation of language improves phonological awareness, experimentation with omitting words enhances grammatical performance. Van Dijk and associates further explain that “by using textese, . . . children apply rules of grammar and do so in a context-sensitive manner.”[16] When children regularly analyze sentences and make decisions about which words to drop in ever-changing contexts over text, they are essentially doing grammar exercises without even realizing it. Wood, Kemp, and Waldron’s studies agree that texting has no detrimental effects on grammar and found that grammatical violations in texting do not appear to be linked to loss of grammar skills.[17] Texting has no significant detrimental effects on grammar, but rather improves understanding of grammar.

Writing is an art form, and as with any art, one must understand the rules before he can break them. Combined with an understanding of the rules of standard English grammar, textese can help deepen a student’s understanding of grammar as he picks grammatical constructions apart and uses them in different ways and contexts. The manipulation of language to write in textese actually exercises grammar systems and improves understanding of grammar. As long as the correct rules are learned, remembered, and applied when appropriate, breaking them through textese offers only benefits.

Many of the claims against texting for its supposed negative effects on literacy and grammar are woefully unfounded. Studies indicate that texting is more likely beneficial to literacy and grammar skills. Texting is especially beneficial to children and likely harmless if not beneficial to adults as well. Texting exposes children to text in new ways and contexts and serves as a mental exercise to sharpen their understanding of grammar. Studies show mixed results regarding the effects of texting on adults, but many apparent linguistic deficiencies in adults can often be attributed to outside factors or to the individual’s own carelessness or lack of linguistic competence in general. Texting may break a lot of rules, but, so long as the distinction between registers is understood and each register is used appropriately, there is likely no need to worry about texting destroying our language skills.


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[1]. M.A. Drouin, “College Students’ Text Messaging, Use of Textese and Literacy Skills,” Journal of Computer Assisted Learning 27, no. 1 (February 2011): 69, accessed April 5, 2017, Academic Search Elite, EBSCOhost.

[2]. Drouin, “College Students’ Text-messaging,” 72.

[3].Clare Wood, Nenagh Kemp, and Sam Waldron, “Exploring the Longitudinal Relationships Between the Use of Grammar in Text Messaging and Performance on Grammatical Tasks,” British Journal of Developmental Psychology 32, no. 4 (November 2014): 427, accessed April 5, 2017, Academic Search Elite, EBSCOhost.

[4]. Sarah De Jonge and Nenagh Kemp. “Text-message Abbreviations and Language Skills in High School and University Students,” Journal of Research In Reading 35, no. 1 (February 2012): 65, accessed April 5, 2017,  Academic Search Elite, EBSCOhost.

[5]. Wood, Kemp, and Waldron, “Relationships Between Grammar and Texting,” 427.

[6]. Wood, Kemp, and Waldron, “Relationships Between Grammar and Texting,” 427.

[7]. Helene Deacon and Sara Whitzman, “Does Texting Lead to Poor Literacy Skills?,” Literacy Today no. 67 (December 2011): 15, accessed March 29, 2017, Academic Search Elite, EBSCOhost.

[8]. Chantal N. van Dijk et al., “The Influence of Texting Language on Grammar and Executive Functions in Primary School Children,” Plos ONE 11, no. 3 (March 31, 2016): 2, accessed April 5, 2017, Academic Search Elite, EBSCOhost.

[9]. Michelle Drouin and Brent Driver, “Texting, Textese, and Literacy Abilities: A Naturalistic Study.” Journal of Research In Reading 37, no. 3 (August 2014): 264, accessed March 28, 2017, Academic Search Elite, EBSCOhost.

[10]. Wood, Kemp, and Waldron, “Relationships Between Grammar and Texting,” 427.

[11]. Van Dijk et al., “The Influence of Texting Language,” 3.

[12]. Wood, Kemp, and Waldron, “Relationships Between Grammar and Texting,” 425.

[13]. Van Dijk et al., “The Influence of Texting Language,” 3.

[14]. Ibid., 4-5.

[15]. Ibid., 16.

[16]. Ibid., 17.

[17]. Wood, Kemp, and Waldron, “Relationships Between Grammar and Texting,” 427.

Roman architecture

The Benefits of Studying Latin

Latin may be a dead language, but it is not useless or irrelevant. For years the study of Latin was common practice in schools and colleges for good reason. Though Latin is no longer a requirement in most schools or college majors, the study of Latin still has benefits, no matter what discipline one might be studying. The study of Latin sharpens the mind and enriches a good education in other areas of study.

The study of Latin enriches a student’s education through its deep connections to history, philosophy, and culture. Many great Roman thinkers, scholars, and writers recorded their works in Latin. Roman thinkers had great influence on other peoples, languages, and legal systems, including America’s: “Our own culture, including our system of government, architecture, art and religion, shows the heavy influence of Rome.”[1] Studying Latin gives a student a better appreciation and understanding of these ancient scholars, their works, and their enduring influences in today’s world. As Claude Pauver observes, “You don’t just read about Seneca or Caesar; you read the words of Seneca and Caesar themselves.”[2] The study of Latin gives a student a deeper understanding and appreciation of influential Latin works by enabling him to study works in their original language. Latin’s historical and cultural roots improve a student’s understanding and appreciation of ancient literary works and their influence on world history and culture.

Studying Latin also improves a student’s study of English and foreign languages. An understanding of Latin improves a student’s study of grammar and expands his vocabulary. According to the University of Illinois, “Students of Latin see immediate benefits to their spoken and written English. More than 65% of English words come from Latin.”[3] Studying Latin improves a student’s understanding and use of the English language. Pauver asserts that after studying Latin, “you don’t just speak your own modern language unreflectively, but you learn where much of it came from, after actually seeing the contents and the workings of one of its greatest sources.”[4] These benefits are not only gained by English speakers, but also by speakers and learners of other foreign languages that have Latin roots and influences, such as French and Spanish. An understanding of Latin enhances a student’s study and comprehension of English and other languages that are derived from and influenced by Latin.

In addition to improving a student’s understanding and appreciation of history and languages, the study of Latin also sharpens a student’s mind for better mental performance in general, no matter what he is studying. Latin forces a student to stretch his mind and think in new ways, because it is difficult and takes discipline to learn. The mind is like a muscle: it improves as one uses it and wrestles with new and difficult concepts. With these facts in mind, Sal Khan asserts that “our intelligence is not fixed, and the best way that we can grow our intelligence is to embrace tasks where we might struggle and fail.”[5] Wrestling with a difficult subject like Latin forces a student’s mind to grow and improve for better function in any field of study. By sharpening a student’s mind, studying Latin can enhance performance in all his academic endeavors.

Despite being a dead language, Latin continues to offer multiple benefits. An understanding of Latin improves a student’s understanding and appreciation of many ancient works and other areas of study, and it stretches and sharpens a student’s mind for increased function in any other mental undertaking. Even in the modern world, the study of ancient Latin has limitless benefits.


Interested in studying Latin? Get started with a popular textbook like Wheelock’s Latin or Latin for Dummies!

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[1]. Department of the Classics, “Why Study Latin?”, University of Illinois, accessed April 5, 2020, https://classics.illinois.edu/admissions/why-study-latin.

[2]. Claude Pauver, “Some Leading Benefits of Latin (and Classical) Studies, “Saint Louis University, 2009, accessed, April 5, 2020, https://www.slu.edu/colleges/AS/languages/classical/latin/tchmat/pedagogy/latinbenefits.html.

[3]. Department of the Classics, “Why Study Latin?”, University of Illinois, accessed March 23, 2017, https://classics.illinois.edu/admissions/why-study-latin.

[4]. Claude Pauver, “Some Leading Benefits of Latin (and Classical) Studies, “Saint Louis University, 2009, accessed, March 23, 2017, http://www.slu.edu/colleges/AS/languages/classical/latin/tchmat/pedagogy/latinbenefits.html.

[5]. Sal Khan, “The learning myth: Why I’ll never tell my son he’s smart,” Khan Academy, accessed April 5, 2020, https://www.khanacademy.org/talks-and-interviews/conversations-with-sal/a/the-learning-myth-why-ill-never-tell-my-son-hes-smart.